Author: Vista Admin

Efficacy of COVID-19 Vaccine

Efficacy of COVID-19 Vaccine

According to recent research and advances in COVID vaccine preparation, a company successfully developed a working vaccine for treating the COVID pandemic.

A company named Moderna announced its success in research on 30,000 of the population. According to this research, only 11 people suffered from coronavirus after vaccination. More than 94 percent of the population did not develop any symptom of coronavirus infection after vaccination.

According to the scientists, they were not expecting the results to control coronavirus infection among patients successfully.

The company has decided to request the FDA to authorization this vaccine as a EUA (emergency use authorization) vaccine. This company is also seeking a green signal from other agencies as the European Medicines Agency.

Vaccine statistics

According to the researcher at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, there were remarkable results of the vaccine research on the infection’s 95 total cases. These results were more than the expectations of the researchers.

This Moderna’s vaccine for COVID-19 relies on mRNA technology (messenger RNA) for coding a protein that binds with the surface of the microorganism or pathogen.

Two other companies, BioNTech and Pfizer, also developed similar vaccines having RNA mechanisms against the coronavirus infection. These vaccines are also having an efficacy of more than 95%, according to their analysis on 45,000 of population. In these studies, only ten severe cases of coronavirus were persistent.

All these companies’ collaboration states that vaccine works almost similar in degrees of efficiency in all the genders, ethnicities, and age groups.

More than 7,000 individuals in the Moderna trial were having age above 65 years,while more than 5000 individuals were under the age of 65. These older individuals were at high risk of developing coronavirus infection. This study included almost more than 11,000 individuals from different communities.

All of these results are equally satisfying for other bodies who are trying to introduce the new forms of vaccines to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). The recommendations of the committees can influence the decision of the CDC regarding the prioritization of the vaccines, but there are individual guidelines for the individual states.

According to financial statistics, Moderna received about one billion dollars from the United States government (Operation wrap speed) to develop these mRNA vaccines. The CEO of Moderna states that all of this federal money was invested in staging clinical trials for the COVID vaccine. He also stated that there could be more delay in the preparation of the vaccine without this help. This research study was 100% effective in the prevention of severe coronavirus disease. This vaccine preparation has collaborated with the Vaccine Research Center and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

According to the CEO, the company intends to produce 20 million vaccines by the end of this year in December 2020. The company further plans to increase this production from 500 million vaccines to a billion vaccines in 2021. For vaccination, every person needs two dosages of the vaccines every month apart. So, about 20 million vaccines will only meet the needs of 10 million of the population.

Pfizer claims that it can produce about 50 million vaccine doses in the coming year, while half of these vaccines will go to the United States population. This vaccine also needs two dosages for the vaccination of patients.

Prioritization of population

There will be a distribution of population for vaccination.

The first shots of these coronavirus vaccines will go to certain groups of people,which may include:
• Health care workers
• People in security and essential workers as police workers
• People working in critical industries

• Residents and employees working in nursing homes

Coronavirus mortality data states that there were more than 100,000 deaths due to coronavirus in the United States’ long-term care centers and nursing homes. The reason for prioritizing the health care workers and nursing home employees is that they serve as front line warriors and caretakers. These population groups are more vulnerable to contracting the virus and suffering from the disease’s severe intensity than the other people in the community.

In the United States, the White House is abruptly contributing to the coronavirus vaccine’s progress to save millions of its inhabitants’ lives. According to President Trump’s spokesman, this progress is five times faster than any vaccine preparation in history.

About 13.3 million individuals in America contracted this virus, while more than about 265,900 individuals died due to the severity of this disease. In November2020, there were new coronavirus cases, which led to 25,500 mortalities due to the vaccines’ unavailability in the United States. Whereas, globally, there is an increasing shift in coronavirus cases, with 62 million new cases and 1.5 million mortalities due to infection.

Researchers are working around the world to make vaccines for coronavirus. Until now, there are more than 70 vaccines in the pipeline for testing. Whereas, 11 of these vaccines, including Moderna’s vaccine and Pfizer’s vaccine, have large-scale clinical trials to check the efficacy of the vaccine.

Another vaccine by AstraZeneca is also in progress, which showed some positive results. According to the results, this vaccine was 90 percent effective in those individuals who had half the vaccine dosage. While this vaccine was 62 percent effective among individuals who had two dosages of the vaccine at different intervals. For this vaccine, researchers are working on more data to yield satisfactory results.

Price of the vaccine

According to Moderna plans, this company will charge about 32 to 37 dollars perdose in the developed countries. According to their CEO, there will be more reduction in the price of the vaccine for other countries in the world. This company collaborates with the other covid vaccines facilities to reduce the global vaccines’ inequities by distributing and purchasing their approved products.

Moderna aims to provide this vaccine at the cheapest rates for the under-developed countries. This company says that they want to provide the maximum vaccines around the world to succeed in the fight with COVID.

EUA request

FDA has announced a meeting with the relative companies and vaccine advisory committee. This meeting will have an in-depth discussion on December 10th,2020.

CEO of Moderna states that FDA will review their application as early as December 17th, 2020, to check its efficacy. He further states that this agency may issue a EUA after 24 to 72 hours.

According to Bancel, CEO of Moderna, this vaccine has high efficacy for mild and intense illnesses. This vaccine is equally working for all the patients, whether health care workers, elderlies, diabetic patients, obese patients, or patients suffering from heart diseases.

This company hopes that other companies and countries around the world also succeed in making the successful coronavirus vaccine. At this time, the world needs several other vaccine manufacturers to prepare and distribute the working vaccine to finish the era of this pandemic.

The CEO of Moderna states that their company is not beginning shipping their vaccine across the country. They will not ship the vaccine until they get emergency authorization.

At this time, the need for the availability of the coronavirus vaccine is inevitable. Governments are finding their ways to introduce working treatments and vaccines.
Until now, there is no mRNA vaccine in the market. That is why scientists are showing their scepticism regarding the use of this vaccine as it contains mRNA.

The importance of COVID-19 testing and Screening

The importance of COVID-19 testing and Screening

For the early identification, treatment, diagnosis, reporting, and isolation, timely and correct testing is a significant prerequisite.

Coronavirus testing or screening can directly impact:
  • Effectiveness of infection prevention
  • Effectiveness of pandemic control
According to the WHO, testing of the coronavirus infection is the utmost need of the world. WHO has delivered a message to the whole world to focus on frequent testing and repetitive screening.

Coronavirus testing

Currently, health providers are using two types of tests for the diagnosis of coronavirus:
  • Antigen test
  • Antibody test

An antigen test or RNA test is for confirming the virus’s presence in the sample or specimen.

Antibody test or serological test is the test for confirmation of antibodies in the body to fight infection.

Both of these tests have their risks and benefits with multiple variations.

RNA test can detect the infection even before the production of antibodies for fighting the virus. This test’s reliability has almost 75% accuracy, detecting the virus even before the antibody test. This test requires swabs of 6-inches in length.These swabs pass through the nasal passage through one of your nostrils. In the nostril, this swab is rotated for about 15 seconds to collect the mucus sample. Then this swab goes into lab testing using PCR testing for generating the result.

While antibody tests require the blood sample of the person to check for antibodies present in the blood, the presence of IgM antibodies can indicate the exposure of the virus. While the presence of IgG antibodies indicates a later stage of the infection. IgG represents the later stages of the infection, which is almost the 14thday of the infection. Antibody test requires some time for yielding the results after coronavirus exposure.

Why is testing vital?

Identification of infection source:

Testing or screening for coronavirus infection is vital. Testing helps with identifying infection sources and helps in facilitating the overall planning of infection control and prevention.

Testing or screening is the central source for the identification of infection. It provides measures for control or infection prevention.

In China, health care facilities tested several infectors for identifying or confirming the presence of the virus in them. On the basis of screening and mass testing, China took control over the pandemic in a short time. Chinese health care facilities adopted measures to test the target, tracing close contacts, epidemiological testing, and quarantining. These measures were effective in preventing the spread of the disease.

Early diagnosis and treatment:

Testing also helps with early diagnosis and treatment for reducing the mortality rate and improving the prognosis. For diagnosis of the coronavirus infection, virus testing or screening is the only diagnostic criterion.

Suppose a person gets testing or screening on time. In that case, he can improve his infection prognosis and reduce the mortality rate due to infection.

According to the National Health Commission statistics, China decreased the proportion of coronavirus infections from 38% to 18% in Wuhan with early detection and effective treatment after hospital admission.

Categorization of the patients:

In coronavirus disease, different patients can suffer from the different intensity of the infection. For instance, some patients will have influenza-like symptoms or mild symptoms, while some patients can have severe conditions.

Testing and screening help with the categorization of the patients according to their health conditions. Categorization of patients helps with effective interventions and treatments. It determines the level of treatment that the patient needs according to the symptoms and severity of the disease.

Screening strategy in China

Coronavirus pandemic started in China.

China regulated their facilities for effective testing and screening. With time, China discovered cost-effective or low-cost testing for this infection. The cost-effective screening showed exceptional results in infection control. With different strategies, China instantly improved its efficiency and capacity in testing for coronavirus.

According to the statistics, Hubei province is capable of testing more than 10,000 suspects of infection in one full day. Along with swab testing, nucleic acid testing can also yield results within two hours of the testing. Simultaneously, China took measures to guarantee cost-effective testing for several potential coronavirus infectors.

The whole world is now focusing on measures to build low-cost machines and testing equipment for coronavirus testing. This will increase the diagnosis rate and help the individuals in early treatment for these patients.

Concerns with the coronavirus testing and screening

There are a few concerns with coronavirus testing and screening.
One of the main concerns regarding coronavirus testing is contact investigation. In the contact investigation, health care practitioners have to test all the individuals who came in contact with the positive infection patient. This practice needs a lot of hard work and time. Most of the time, the contacted patients’ data is uncertain or unavailable, making it difficult to conduct the testing and screening of suspected individuals.

The contact investigation is the need of the time to minimize the infection spread, but it seems too difficult to practice. Contact infection is a vital reason for the infection spread.

Another significant test or screening for coronavirus infection is testing patients who already had an illness. This test confirms the presence of the virus even if the patient has unknowingly recovered from the infection.

When a person is infected with a certain virus, the patient’s immune system stays unfamiliar with the foreign object. With time, the virus tends to multiply and reproduce multiple copies in the human body. This replication of the virus can yield several manifestations of the disease like cough, SOB, fever, and pain, which triggers the individual’s immune response.

During an immune response, our bodies produce antibodies. These antibodies are evidence for a patient about his past infection or exposure. Confirmation of an individual for his disease can help the health officials and health systems to understand the level of community immunity. Suppose a large percentage of immunity exists in the community. In that case, it refers to herd immunity, which is profitable for the coronavirus prognosis.

Knowing about the patients who have recovered from the infection and immunity can work safely in the work settings, maximizing public safety.

This seroconversion process shows the conversion of a healthy individual to infection and then recovery from the infection leading to immunity. Coronavirus testing and screening can confirm such patients to transplant their plasma having antibodies to infected patients.

Significance of coronavirus testing in employees

Coronavirus screening can:
  • Help the employers to maintain a safe working capacity for their return to work
  • Inform the employees for creating their plans and decisions to continue their work
  • Identify the patients who don’t show any symptom for preventing the large loss of workforce
  • Give all the significant information which is necessary for acting quickly if the employee becomes infected.

Surface testing

Surface testing is another type of testing, which involves screening high touch surfaces in workplaces or facilities. Surface testing uses RT-PCR technology,which determines the presence of coronavirus. The surface testing involves fomites and all the hard surfaces.

Surface testing provides the other layer of accountability, prevention, accountability, and the ability to have containment measures and proactive control.
We can conduct surface testing, either pre or post the disinfection. Health care associations recommend that surface testing be a regular preventive measure regularly after performing the preventive disinfecting regimen.

Health data and Coronavirus infection

Health data and Coronavirus infection

Health care data is a vital component for analyzing the health situation of the community. Since the coronavirus pandemic, there is an increase in health issues.

In this time, health data is benefiting the population to find the gaps in health issues and interventions.

Health data has exceptional potential for revolutionizing clinical trials.

Impact of coronavirus infection on social care

According to the health foundation, there was a significant impact of coronavirus on social care in the community. According to the statistics, from March to June, there was an addition (30,500) in the deaths among residents of care homes than the normal. In comparison, an increase of 45,000 deaths was also seen among the individuals receiving care in their homes.

Elective procedures and admissions for several care home residents did drop to 58 percent in the first part or months of 2020. This reduction in the number of procedures led to a decrease in covid transmission risk in care homes. But this practice also led to an increase in the unattended needs of the needy population.

Health professionals Role 

According to health professionals, there is a need to have a national contact tracing and a comprehensive testing system to understand and control the spread of the disease. This practice can determine the efficacy of treatments and interventions against covid infection. But there are several obstacles in arranging a national framework on a massive scale for the work programs. They say that health screening is incredibly beneficial in understanding the care and health needs of individuals of different groups.

According to these surveys’ recent data, several diseases and issues get a spike with increasing age.

NCHS says that there is even more significance in understanding the need for different populations’ health and care requirements during this pandemic.

Data for the elderly population

According to recent studies, with the help of health screening, there can be more potential in treatments and preventions of the diseases for the individuals who are in the elderly age group. This practice requires big data to have better numbers.
Coronavirus pandemic impacted the number of health screening and care requirements, affecting individuals’ health ratio in this age group.

COVID-19 and Screening Programs for Women

Women’s screening is a significant way of ruling out high-risk health problems to give early interventions and make timely decisions. This screening can help in saving several lives.

For women, there are three vital screening programs at the National level:
  • Cervical screening
  • Bowel screening
  • Breast screening

Due to the coronavirus pandemic, more than one million women didn’t screen for cervical or breast cancer. According to the reports of the survey, these women were reluctant to go for screening due to the pandemic.

There is a restart plan for these screening programs. For screening appointments, there is a long waiting list of people. Now, there is an increase in speculations regarding breast cancer among women. According to NCHS, about 86,000 women were restricted for screening, which led to undetected breast cancer due to coronavirus’s negative impact. Screening offers the biggest benefits for catching several conditions in the early stages of the disease. In the case of cervical cancer, the prevention of cancer development is vital rather than the treatment.

Statistics of women’s screening

Before the pandemic, there was still a variation in individuals who took the screening program. According to the data of NCHS, about 2.23 million women of 45+ age did their breast screening between the year 2018 to 2019, which makes about a 4.5 percent increase than the previous years.

Regarding bowel cancer screening, it is higher among females than males in every age group. There was a decrease in these programs’ uptake to 53% to 56% from 59% this year.

The cervical screening increased to 54% among young women 25 to 29 years of age. This spike also decreased this year due to the coronavirus pandemic.
Screening facilities state that most of these life-saving strategies do not reach the individuals who need them.

Why are women not attending screening?

There are various and complex reasons behind women not taking the screening programs. Even a post letter telling about the due date of screening cannot guarantee the patient’s attendance in the hospital.

The two most vital reasons for not attending these screening programs are:
  • Lack of time for attending an appointment
  • Lack of apparent symptoms for the disease
Lack of screening among women is multi-factorial. Most of the time. Due to invisible symptoms, women do not prioritize screening. Deciding the right time for the screening is also a vital component of the screening. For instance, a woman suffering from irregular periods can go for cervical screening to further prevent complications.

Sometimes, bad experiences and discomfort during the screening can be other factors to avoid screening. Another deterrent for screening is the concern about the findings of the screening. Sometimes, women tend to fear the confirmation of the diagnosis and anticipate something negative, which will happen.

Another significant factor that acts as a screening deterrent is false positive or negative findings. Sometimes, results can show the presence of cancer when that is not there. While sometimes, results can assure you that nothing is wrong, but there is a problem.

Promotion of screening

For promoting the screening before coronavirus, a team of facilitators spread awareness about screening programs and uptake these programs.

For raising the awareness of the screening, there is a vital role of Gps and nurses. They should arrange a system for reminding the patients about their screening schedule. The Gps must make the nurses fully aware of the proper education and training regarding screening techniques and complications.

Access to social media platforms can immensely increase the awareness of the public.  The national telephone number is accessible by everyone regarding the screening queries should also be available. Screening awareness isn’t limited to only homes and individuals. Still, the workplaces also need to realize the importance of screening among women. These workplaces and authorities should encourage women and let them have time to attend their screening sessions.


During the coronavirus pandemic, screening is also facing a real-time problem.

At this time, most of the health care authorities are advising to avoid elective procedures. But during this time, everyone should take preventive measures. For instance, any woman who feels a need for screening for any apparent symptom should immediately go or the screening. While those who do not have any visible signs should adopt healthy practices to reduce the chances of diseases inside them.

Regular health data of social care groups is also going through a decline. In this time, these individuals can make their minds to support themselves. Mind power is inevitable. Everyone going through this phase of life can focus on the positivity and health-oriented practices for maximizing their survival rates.

Lack of health data and screening data will greatly burden the health facilities in the coming years. Governments and managements should make preparations in advance to cope with this intense increase in the disease burden. An increase in disease burden will affect the economic and financial status of the countries as well. It will take time to regain the countries’ economic stability due to the coronavirus infection’s after-effects.
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